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Teaching Tolerance

Ten Things to Know about the March on Washington

Submitted on August 28, 2012

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Printer-friendly versionPrinter-friendly versionThe 1963 March on Washington is perhaps the most iconic event from the modern civil rights movement. Almost a half-century ago, a quarter of a million Americans gathered to show solidarity for African Americans.  While images of the March on Washington are engrained in our collective conscience, few may realize that the event defined and crystallized the social, political and moral revolution. To commemorate the event, here are 10 things you may not know about the March on Washington.Photo Credit: Getty Images

  1. The official name of the march was “The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.”  The goal was to rally support for President John F. Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill, and call attention to the economic challenges confronting the African-American community.
  2. A March on Washington Movement was first organized in 1941 by A. Phillip Randolph to address employment discrimination toward African Americans.  Although an actual march did not materialize, Randolph’s threat to protest on the National Mall during World War II forced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order #8802, which prevented discrimination in the national defense industries.
  3.  The March on Washington in 1963 was organized by Bayard Rustin, Martin Luther King’s closest advisor, and a gay black man.
  4. W.E.B. Du Bois, co-founder of the NAACP, died on the morning of the march, in Accra, Ghana, at the age of 95.
  5. The March on Washington was held exactly eight years after the 1955 lynching of Emmitt Till.
  6. Daisy Bates was the only woman to actually address the crowd at the March on Washington. Only given 142 words, Bates stated that black women “pledge that we will join hands …  until we are free.”
  7. English: Photograph of Rosa Parks with Dr. Mar...

    English: Photograph of Rosa Parks with Dr. Martin Luther King jr. (ca. 1955) Mrs. Rosa Parks altered the negro progress in Montgomery, Alabama, 1955, by the bus boycott she unwillingly began. National Archives record ID: 306-PSD-65-1882 (Box 93). Source: Ebony Magazine Ελληνικά: Φωτογραφία της Rosa Parks με τον Dr. Martin Luther King jr. (περ. 1955.) Español: Fotografía de Rosa Parks con Martin Luther King jr. (aprox. 1955). Français : Photographie Rosa Parks (ca. 1955) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

    Two separate parades were held for male and female civil rights leaders.  The men marched down Pennsylvania Avenue. The women, who included Daisy Bates, Josephine Baker, an entertainer-turned-activist, and Rosa Parks, marched down Independence Avenue.

  8. The most stirring parts of King’s “I Have a Dream” speech, delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the march, were improvised. King was inspired by gospel legend Mahalia Jackson who shouted out from the crowd, “Tell ‘em about the dream, Martin!”
  9. Following the march, male leaders met with President Kennedy, but no women were invited.  The group met to discuss the civil rights bill. It was the first time African-American leaders had been invited to the White House since 1901, when President Roosevelt dined with Booker T. Washington.
  10. King and the other senior civil rights leaders censored the speech of John Lewis, representing the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. They felt he took too hard a line against the Kennedy Administration. Here are some of his omitted words: “In good conscience, we cannot support the administration’s civil-rights bill, for it is too little, and too late. There’s not one thing in the bill that will protect our people from police brutality.”

John Adams, PhD candidate, History Department, Rutgers University


Cato Institute

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NSA’s Weak Defense of Bulk Surveillance

I know you all read Spanish but in this case just Spanish is not enough, as this is a ” Gaucho Poem” written in colloquial, argentine cowboy slang… It talks about  argentines divided by hate and years of political fight, and the hope of tolerance and reconciliation offered by Creole Pope Francis




Don Pancho

Más criollo que mate amargo
es Don “Pancho” el nuevo Papa,
criollo que se destaca
por su tranquear por el fango,
no hace abuso de su rango
y actúa con humildad,
siempre va con la verdad
predicando con guapeza,
que hay que mirar con nobleza
al que vive en orfandad.-

Gaucho lindo de mi suelo
hoy el mundo te venera,
y mi tierra gaucha espera
poder levantar su vuelo,
yo veo aclararse el cielo
por la luz de un nuevo día,
que unirá la patria mía
sin agravios ni rencores,
manteniendo los valores
que nos sobran a porfía.-

Si Dios nos mando este lazo
habrá que saber tirarlo,
de nada vale colgarlo
y seguir en el fracaso,
FRANCISCO PAPA CRIOLLO-2Don “Pancho” será el abrazo
que unirá a los argentinos,
siempre que el mismo camino
caminemos como hermanos,
y apretemos nuestras manos
sellando un nuevo destino.-

ADOLFO VAZCO ZABALZAAdolfo “El vasco” Zabalza


tranquear = to walk.

tranco = steap

“Pancho” nickname for Francisco

“Criollo” = Creole = born  to Europeans fathers, but overseas, usually in  Americas

Gaucho = Argentine cowboy

Lazo = (tie) is a round rope  braided from cowhide.

“Tirarlo” = Here doesn’t mean “throw it away” … but hold it firm and tense with one extreme looped around the  gaucho’s waist, standing; and the other extreme of lazo around of the neck of a strong brave bull.

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It’s Time for Washington to Shut Up about Promoting Democracy

Posted: 02 Aug 2013 10:35 AM PDT

Doug Bandow

The military regime in Cairo continues to kill supporters of ousted President Mohamed Morsi with Washington’s financial support. The Obama administration is turning hypocrisy into an art form.

Washington labors under the delusion that it controls the world. The administration insists that it must preserve its influence by giving more money to the generals in Cairo. Yet when has the United States ever exercised influence in Egypt?

For four decades American taxpayers have subsidized dictatorial regimes. The administration tried to save former president Hosni Mubarak from revolution, before supporting his overthrow. Washington’s attempts to convince Morsi to rule more inclusively, and military commander Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Sisi not to stage a coup, failed completely. Now the coup leader is ostentatiously ignoring the administration’s plea that he not force the Muslim Brotherhood underground.

Yet President Obama refuses to acknowledge the military coup, which under U.S. law would require the cut-off of American aid to Egypt. If that happened, says the administration, Gen. al-Sisi might ignore American advice!

As I point out in my latest Forbes column:

It would have been better years ago had American officials simply shut up and done nothing. No money would have been wasted.  Washington’s impotence would not have been demonstrated. The U.S. would not be complicit in decades of military rule.

Alas, Egypt is not the first instance in which the U.S. government has managed to look stupid while spending a lot of money. In fact, that is far more the rule than the exception for Washington.

For decades Washington has given away tens of billions of dollars a year for economic “assistance.” Among the lucky recipients?   Crackpot communists such as Nicolae Ceausescu’s Romania and Mengistu Haile Mariam’s Ethiopia.

As in Egypt, local despots quickly learned that U.S. officials hate to admit failure and end assistance. So the money continues to flow no matter what.

Around the world, Washington officials cheerfully talk about the importance of democracy while ostentatiously backing autocracy. Today the hypocrisy is most flagrant in Central Asia and the Middle East. Indeed, the administration praised the “Arab Spring” while supporting repression in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and now Egypt.

Much ink has been recently spilled on preserving American credibility after President Obama made Syrian use of chemical weapons a “red line” for intervention. In fact, Washington routinely draws meaningless red lines around the globe, which are routinely ignored.

American officials never learn!

In Egypt Washington has combined equal parts hypocrisy and futility. U.S. officials are never content to just shut up and stay home. If President Obama wants to leave a positive foreign policy legacy, he should do and say less abroad.