US -GOVERMENT- Considered NELSON MANDELA a Terrorist Until 2008

NELSON MANDELA TERRORIST 4 THE US UNTIL 2008

By Robert Windrem, Investigative Producer, NBC News

From the White House to the halls of Congress, U.S. government officials have responded to the death of Nelson Mandela with a hail of testimonials to the late South African president’s leadership in the struggle for freedom and human rights.

Until five years ago, however, the U.S. officially considered Mandela a terrorist. During the Cold War, both the State and Defense departments dubbed Mandela’s political party, the African National Congress, a terrorist group, and Mandela’s name remained on the U.S. terrorism watch list till 2008.

Presidents Carter and Reagan and Congress had all instituted sanctions against the white minority South African government because of its policy of racial apartheid. But in 1986, Reagan condemned Mandela’s group, the ANC, which was leading the black struggle against the apartheid regime, saying it engaged in “calculated terror … the mining of roads, the bombings of public places, designed to bring about further repression.”

After the apartheid regime in South Africa declared the ANC a terrorist group, the Reagan administration followed suit.

In August of 1988, the State Department listed the ANC among “organizations that engage in terrorism.” It said the group ”disavows a strategy that deliberately targets civilians,” but noted that civilians had “been victims of incidents claimed by or attributed to the ANC.”

Five months later, in January 1989, the Defense Department included the ANC in an official publication, “Terrorist Group Profiles,” with a foreword by President-elect George H.W. Bush. The ANC was listed among 52 of the “world’s more notorious terrorist groups.” (One of the others listed, Yasser Arafat’s Fatah, is now the ruling party in the West Bank.)

The publication referred to Mandela, who had once led the ANC’s military wing, as part of the “leadership,” though by then he had spent more than a quarter century in prison. It also accepted the apartheid regime’s claim that “ANC’s operations — which heretofore had sought to avoid civilian casualties — abruptly changed. Attacks became more indiscriminate, resulting in both black and white civilian victims.” Five months before the report was issued, the ANC had taken responsibility for some attacks that resulted in civilian deaths but had pledged to prevent a recurrence.

Leaders around the globe remember Nelson Mandela’s fearless generosity, leadership, and remarkable force for change. NBC’s Andrea Mitchell reports.

The report cited 13 attacks during the 1980s, many of which targeted government facilities, including a military command headquarters, an unfinished nuclear plant, a courthouse and SASOL, the government-owned coal-to-oil conversion facility. Of those incidents that resulted in deaths, the biggest was a car-bombing of the South African Air Force headquarters in Pretoria that killed 19 and wounded 200.

The report also claimed significant links between the ANC and Communist countries, noting that the ANC “receives support from the Soviet bloc, Cuba and a number of African nations in addition to contributions from the West.” The DoD report added that the ANC received many of its weapons from the “Soviet Bloc” and listed among its “political objectives” the establishment of a “multiracial Socialist government in South Africa.”

When the Defense Department’s report was issued, State quickly distanced itself from the harsh, Cold War rhetoric. Despite its own earlier dire characterization of the ANC, it called the group “a politically diverse organization, representing a range of views. It is the oldest black nationalist movement in South Africa.” 

But the Defense Department stood by its language, and Mandela and other ANC officials remained on the terror watch list even as President Bush welcomed Mandela, newly released from prison, to the White House in 1990.

NELSON MANDELA TERRORIST 4 THE US UNTIL 2008-2

Because of what was described as a “bureaucratic snafu,” their names were kept on the list until 2008, 14 years after Mandela had been elected president and nine years after he had left power. He was 90 at the time.

The terrorist designation finally proved too embarrassing for the U.S. government to ignore. In April 2008, during the last year of the George W. Bush administration, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice told a Senate committee that her department had to issue waivers for ANC members to travel to the United States.

Kim Ludbrook / EPA

Mourners pay tribute to South Africa’s revered anti-apartheid icon, who died on Dec. 5, 2013.

“This is a country with which we now have excellent relations, South Africa, but it’s frankly a rather embarrassing matter that I still have to waive in my own counterpart, the foreign minister of South Africa, not to mention the great leader Nelson Mandela,” Rice said.

Later that year, the terrorist designation was dropped after a bill, proposed by then-Senator now secretary of State John Kerry, passed both houses of Congress and was signed by President Bush.

Mandela was imprisoned in 1964 after being arrested and charged with sabotage, specifically a campaign against the country’s power grid, and plotting to overthrow the government. No one was injured in the sabotage campaign. He was released in 1990, at age 71. He was elected president of South Africa in 1994, in the country’s first full and free elections, and served until 1999.

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PatAgonica

Soy el Dr. Gastón Alejandro Saint Martin (ARDMS. RVT. RPVI eligible, MD. CCPM). Medico patagónico; me gradué en la UNBA (Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, en 1961) Recién graduado y casado fui a hacer mi entrenamiento en la Universidad de Louisville, (UdeL) Kentucky, USA, la mas antigua Universidad Municipal de La Unión; pobre, pero de excelente nivel académico; con una pequeña escuela de medicina. Louisville está en la margen izquierda del rio Ohio (afluente del Mississippi) Elegí a UdeL por estar entre los rio Ohio y Tennessee, que era la zona mas subdesarrollada de La Unión, (cuna de los "Hillbillies") montañeses pobres, poco ilustrados, casi analfabetos pero gente honrada, noble y muy trabajadora; donde era de esperar encontrar problemas de patología medica y socio económicos similares a los de la población rural patagónica indigente. Los médicos residentes de la Universidad de Louisville atendíamos al Louisville General Hospital y al Children’s Hospital of Louisville. Finalizado mi entrenamiento, y al tener yo visa de emigrante, me pude quedar en USA, donde los abogados jueces y los médicos con residencias de entrenamiento completas, teníamos un brillante futuro económico, estabilidad y brillo social. La tentación para quedarse fue muy grande, pero cumplimos mi plan regresando a casa; Argentina (No a Buenos. Aires.) sino a La Patagonia (Gral. Roca, Rio Negro), donde trabajé intensamente, no solo en medicina asistencial sino en política. Para el inicio, recluté un pequeño grupo de médicos argentinos jóvenes entrenados en USA y Canadá con quienes creamos al Instituto Medico del Comahue, el pequeño hospital austral privado pionero en medicina asistencial moderna. Construimos el edificio por esfuerzo propio, y por administración, con la dirección técnica de mi padre (Ingeniero Prospero Saint Martin). Tuvimos muchos éxitos y fracasos. Nos integramos al Colegio Medico de General Roca, donde fui el primer organizador de la primer biblioteca medica patagónica. De nuestros Colegas Veteranos aprendimos la Filosofía Ético Moral Medica Hipocrática) y a ser médicos humanistas, antes que corporativos." Allí, practicando, aprendimos las normas básicas de cortesía entre colegas y pacientes. No fue fácil la convivencia y el pasaje armonico de lo (clásico) antiguo a lo (bueno) moderno, pero ¡lo logramos ... y muy Bien! En el ano 2000/2002 La Anarquía establecida Argentina desde el 10 de Septiembre de 1930 estalló y ya “no pude tolerar al criminal anárquico mamarracho republicano Argentino" que culminó con el "Robo Legalizado" (Google "The Legalized Theft" by Steve Hanke - CATO Instituto and/or Johns Hopkins economist) Como muchos de los argentinos ordenados, responsables, con importante capital de trabajo sin deudas, con algunos ahorros PERDIMOS TODO! Yo no perdí mis edificios, mi casa, mi Consultorio Radiológico) ni mi costoso instrumental diagnostico pero al quedar fuera de corporaciones medicas-hospitalarias corruptas, y fuera de los canales de facturación y cobro ... me encontré despojado de uno de los derechos humanos mas importantes “EL DERECHO A TRABAJAR” , del que depende mi “DERECHO A LA PROPIEDAD” y derecho a de “VIVIR en LIBERTAD” como me de la gana y sin pedir nada a nadie (¡LIBRE ALBEDRIO!) Por ello decidimos volver (ya estando jubilados) por segunda vez a USA. Hoy tengo otra residencia legal en Chicago (Oak Park, 60301) Mi mentor (en USA y Argentina) ha sido el Dr. Rene Favaloro (pionero del bypass coronario), con quien (cada uno por su lado) hemos compartido los mismos dilemas, para decidir volver, y para adaptarnos a esta ANARQUÍA Argentina (ver www.29deJulio.wordpress.com ) – La ANARQUÍA en la que cayó La Republica Argentina el 10 de Septiembre de 1930, fue causado por errores garrafales del GOBIERNO DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE NORTEAMÉRICA. (Presidente Herbert Hoover (POTUS 31) ...MAS... errores garrafales en la "ACORDADA UNÁNIME de LA TOTALIDAD DE LOS JUECES DE LA CORTE DE JUSTICIA ARGENTINA" ...MAS... errores garrafales del Gobierno del Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña (UK) ...MAS... el error de un soldadito con grado de General y cáncer de estomago Gral. Félix Uriburo) que no se atrevio a desobedecer al Jefe de su jefe cuando le ordenaron "violar a La Constitucio ... "en nombre de ella??) y asi TODOS ELLOS JUNTOS, en un contubernio internacional, por primera vez en la historia de La Republica Argentina depusieron a un Presidente Constitucional, (Presidente Hipólito Yrigoyen) electo dos veces (en periodos NO consecutivos), por el voto popular, y depuesto con la absurda e ignorante excusa (si no fue mentirosa) de ser "ser viejo e inoperante..."

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